Manual Afrikanisches Schattenspiel (German Edition)

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In Munich the acknowledged leaders of the Jugendstil revolution in ap- plied arts were Obrist and Endell. Among other prominent artists engaged in the movement in Munich were Richard Riemerschmid, Bernhard Pankok and Bruno Paul as well as Behrens and Eckmann for example, figs. Obrist exemplified the ideal Morrisean artist-craftsman. Bril- liant, highly educated, widely traveled, he had brought the new style with him to Munich in Filled with the energy of the zealous reformer and overflowing with ideas and talent, he soon acted to present his message to the public in lectures, publications and exhibitions, in the foundation of the aforementioned Vereinigten Werkstdtten fiir Kunst im Handwerk and, some- what later, in an extremely influential school.

The environmental revolution 33 fig. Exhibited at Glaspalast, Munich, 4. The enormous influence of Lipps, who lectured at the University in Munich from to , should be the subject of more detailed study in the future. Endell's letters to his cousin Kurt Brey- sig now in the Handschriftenabteilung of the Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin reveal not only his indebtedness to Lipps, but the fact that his ideas on the possibility of a totally abstract art which is not derived from nature were, already by , even more radically advanced than those of Obrist: He went far beyond Morris in terms of inventing a visual vocabulary capable of moving into the twentieth century.

Perhaps no other artist of his generation moved closer to abstraction before the turn of the century. Obrist's conscious exploitation of abstract form, line and color for expressive purposes was to have a signifi- cant and direct effect on Kandinsky who, within a short time, was to become his close friend and admirer. Within months of Kandinsky's arrival in Munich, Obrist's young disciple Endell published in the pages of Dekorative Kunst his stunning prophecy of a "totally new art," an art "with forms that mean nothing and represent nothing and recall nothing," yet which will excite the human spirit as only music had previously been able to do.

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Shortly thereafter he elaborated on his prophecy, naming the new art "Formkitnst," or "form-art," and stating that the time was soon approaching when monuments erected on public plazas would represent neither men nor animals, but rather "fantasy forms" to delight and intoxicate the human heart.

Kandinsky's encounter with the idea of an art form which would "move the human spirit" without reference to "anything known," but only by means of a manipulation of its fundamental elements line, color, form , came at a crucial and formative time in his life. Even before leaving Russia, however, he had become aware of the incredible power of pure color in the discovery of a painting of a haystack by Monet fig. As Kandinsky was later to recall in his memoir, he had at first not recognized the subject of the painting.

He felt embarrassed, even irritated by such delib- erate obfuscation. But, when the painting persisted in his consciousness, he 54 fig- 9 Claude Monet Haystack in the Sun. Away with every association. Henceforth, refer- ences to this work will be noted by page number directly in the text. Kandinsky, Letter to Gabriele Munter, Lindsay, Binghamton, New York. Soon he was assembling notes on a new "Farbenspracbe" "color-language" , and in letters to his friend Gabriele Munter would before long refer to his own paintings as "color-composi- tions.

With- out exaggerating, I can maintain that if I solve this problem, I will show painting a new, beautiful way capable of infinite development. I have a new route, which various masters have only guessed at here and there, and which will be recognized sooner or later I already had a premonition of this whole story long ago. From his encounter with Jugendstil principles of interior design, which he acknowledged in several of the exhibi- tions he organized in Munich, to his own designs for applied arts and the decoration of furniture for his house in Murnau, and ultimately to the wall panels he painted for the Campbell foyer in , he demonstrated the sig- nificance he attached to the value of the Gesamtkunstwerk ideal.

This ideal informed as well Kandinsky's concept of a synthesis of all the arts in theater. As he had come from Moscow already aware of the potential of abstraction, so too the dream of an environment integrated by art was one Kandinsky had brought with him from Russia, and for which he found confirmation in Mu- nich's Jugendstil movement.

In "Riickblicke" he described his excitement when, during an anthropological expedition to the remote Vologda region of Russia, he stepped into the "magic" houses of the peasants and felt himself 35 8. Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonne, Tome III: John Bowlt suggests that Kandinsky may have seen a Monet painting in Moscow in , citing a report writ- ten in 1 by the poet Belyi John E. However, no catalogue evi- dence is cited to support this report. By the turn of the century he was already deeply involved in the applied-arts movement, forming professional associations with Obrist and Behrens, and joining Munich's Vereinigung fiir atigewandte Kunst Soci- ety for Applied Arts.

At the age of thirty Kandinsky came late to the discipline of art. He had already successfully terminated a university education in law and economics, passing his examinations in He had, he recalled in "Riickblicke," con- sciously subordinated his inner wishes to the strictures of society, accepting the responsibility he felt imposed upon him to become a self-supporting mem- ber of the family and of society p.

Yet, clearly, he had always been attracted to art, and as a child had shown unusual talent. Now, in , although married and at the threshold of a promising career with the offer of a teaching position at the University of Dorpat, events conspired to change his life once and for all. By his own account, he had worked the previous year as a director in a prominent Moscow art-printing firm. Although his ostens- ible purpose had been to put his economic theories to practical test as a worker, the actual result was to confirm his yearning to become an artist himself. The overwhelming experience of the Monet haystack painting may also have had its catalytic effect at about this time, for the only Monet hay- stack documented as having been exhibited in Moscow during this period was included in an exhibition of French art which toured to St.

Petersburg and Moscow in and Petersburg in October of may also have influenced Kandinsky's momentous deci- sion. Certainly its depiction of tragically stifled artistic creativity would have provided another catalyst had one been needed. In any case, as Kandinsky later recalled, at the age of thirty the compelling thought "overtook" him: At the same time he remembered the inner turmoil and con- flict which accompanied those years of apprenticeship.

Azbe and Stuck rep- resented the dualism inherent in the art of the turn of the century. Azbe, despite his bohemian demeanor and liberal pedagogical approach, exempli- fied the traditions of naturalism that had evolved by then into an Impression- ist apprehension of reality. Stuck, paradoxically, a master of the otherwise conservative Munich Academy, was actually much closer to Jugendstil. He represented that peculiarly Germanic hybrid of "naturalistic Symbolism" or "Symbolist naturalism" of which both Bocklin and Klinger were superior ex- ponents.

This dualism, encompassing the poles of naturalistic Impressionism and a lyric Symbolism, was to be reflected in Kandinsky's own development. It was a source of deep inner conflict and, at the same time, helped to spur his progression toward abstraction. IO Studio of Anton A'zbe. Max Bill, Bern, Benteli-Verlag, , p. Kandinsky also enrolled twice in Academy courses on anatomy with Professor Molliet; he later claimed that the teaching was of poor quality.

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Class in the Anton Azbe School, ca. Tiny in physical stature, yet he was already in the nineties a monumental legendary figure within Munich's bohemian quarter, Schwabing. Stuck, on the other hand, a frequent gold medal winner at the annual Glaspalast exhibitions and a founding mem- ber of the Munich Secession, was already professor at the Academy by , at the age of thirty-two. In contrast to the almost comical Azbe, Stuck was a fine figure of a man as he made sure to dramatize in his numerous self- portraits, for example, cat.

While Azbe died at the age of forty-five, worn out by the conflicting demands of his talent and the restrictions of his existence as an outsider, as well as by his addiction to alcohol, Stuck outlived his own fame, still honored in the s, but by a somewhat bemused public uncertain as to why he had once been so sought after and admired. From Azbe, Kandinsky learned the basics of anatomical drawing and easel painting; yet his most distinct memory of Azbe's pedagogy was: In his early wash studies from the nude cat.

As was often to be the case in Kandinsky's career, his progress was a process of encounter and transformation. In conflict with what he termed the stifling air of the atelier, Kandinsky often skipped school, escaping in- stead to the English Garden or the rural environs of Munich to make his first oil studies from nature, using the palette knife recommended by Az. In these studies he could experiment with the color theories taught by Azbe, who encouraged his students to employ the divisionist tech- nique developed by the Impressionists, whereby pure colors influence each other on the canvas.

Azbe himself practiced a modified Impressionism, but his works display as well a sensitivity to Symbolist form and color. The tech- nical virtuosity that made him a minor master on the Munich scene is appar- ent in paintings such as Self -Portrait, , Half-Nude Woman, , and Portrait of a Negress, cat. Kandinsky observed in "Riickblicke" that in Munich in the nineties, Stuck was considered Germany's "first draftsman" p.

Therefore, as the next step in his self-imposed program of art education, after two years of study with Azbe, Kandinsky conscientiously presented himself to Stuck. As he ruefully acknowledged in his memoir, Stuck turned him away with the suggestion that he spend a year in a drawing class at the Academy. How- ever, he failed the Academy's entrance exam. Despite what to a sensitive though determined spirit must have seemed a bitter blow, Kandinsky resolved to work out his problems alone. On his next application to Stuck, this time with examples of sketches for paintings and a few landscape studies, he was accepted with the compliment that his drawing had become "expressive.

Kandinsky was struck by two characteristic attitudes of Stuck, which he found extremely beneficial. One was what he perceived as Stuck's instinctive sensitivity to form and the "flowing into one another" of forms; the other was a deep feeling of responsibility and obligation to the artistic muse which he communicated to his students. According to Kandinsky, Stuck cured him of a helpless sense of insecurity and enabled him for the first time to bring a compositional concept to a satisfying conclusion p.

Stuck's commit- ment to the ideal of the aesthetically determined environment was also of significance for Kandinsky. His own villa cat.

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Stuck had taken immense delight in designing every element of the house, from its basic architectural plan to the murals, prize-winning fur- niture, silverware, lighting and other details fig. Many of his pictures were as much objects of applied art as they were paintings. His famous and extremely popular portrait of Sin fig.

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  5. Klee depicted a student approaching the famous Stuck villa in a humorously disrespectful drawing [fig. Eugen Kahler, who was later to become associated with Kandinsky, and Hermann Haller, a friend of Klee, studied with Stuck just after the turn of the century. Although the limitations of Stuck's turgid personal style were clear to Kandinsky, many of his teacher's striking images, Jugendstil transformations of traditional symbols, were to make a lasting impression upon him.

    Not only the guardian of paradise, but also the serpent-symbol of evil, the mysterious horseman and the Grecian warrior who symbolized the avant-garde were to figure in Kandinsky's own work cat. After a year at Stuck's atelier, however, Kandinsky realized that the time had come to liberate himself from apprenticeship. By the late fall of Kandinsky was approaching his thirty-fourth birthday. Once again he must have felt a sense of urgency; time was passing and he recognized that his dream was still far away. Courageously now he struck out on his own.

    Encounter with Avant-Garde ii. Another Kandinsky associate, Gustav Freytag, later recalled that it was Hecker who introduced him to Kan- dinsky sometime during the winter of —01; therefore, Kandinsky obvi- ously knew Hecker prior to that. Kandinsky was not without friends during those early years of struggle.

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    In addition to the Russians he had met at Azbe's studio Marianne von Werefkin and Alexej Jawlensky , he also knew Ernst Stern, Stuck's atelier assistant, who shared an apartment with another of Kandinsky's Russian friends, Alex- ander von Salzmann. Perhaps through Stern he had already met Waldemar Hecker, the puppeteer, and Wilhelm Hiisgen, the sculptor, with whom Hecker shared a studio. During the same period they also became involved with Kandinsky in plans to organize a new artists' society, one which would provide exhibition opportunities not available to younger artists or to those outsiders not acceptable to the Kunstlerverein or the Secession.

    The group was to be called the Phalanx, symbolizing the avant-garde ideals it shared with the Elf Scbarfricbter, whose own name was intended, as Stern aptly explained, "to suggest that judgement was sharp and execution sum- mary in the battle against reaction and obscurantism. In August the first Phalanx exhibition opened with works by Kandinsky, von Salzmann and three participants in the Elf Scbar- fricbter: Hecker, Hiisgen and Stern. Kandinsky had designed the poster which announced the exhibition, adapting the Jugendstil imagery and style of Stuck's famous poster for the Munich Secession to produce a work of de- cidedly more refinement and subtlety cat.

    The conjunction of the founding of the Phalanx with the beginnings of the Elf Scbarfricbter and the personal ties among the participants in the two enterprises are significant. They indicate that from the very outset of his pub- lic career Kandinsky not only stood with the avant-garde, but that he was deeply conscious of the social responsibility of art, and much interested in the lyric and performing arts as vehicles for expression of that high obliga- tion. He was never to shirk encounter and conflict, recognizing in them the potential for social reform and transformation.

    The avant-garde quality of the first Phalanx exhibition was instantly attacked by a local reviewer in the pages of Kanst fiir Alle: Included were masks by Hiisgen and marionettes by Hecker for the Elf Scbarfricbter, graphics by the first Phalanx president, Rolf Niczky, decora- tive work by von Salzmann and Stern cat.

    Unidentified works by Kandinsky and paintings by artists who had exhibited previously with the Secession and the splinter group known as the Lnitpoldgriippe were also shown. German Literature and Art , eds. The inclusion of the Elf Scharfrichter material in the first Phalanx exhi- bition is another indication of the liberal nature of Kandinsky's intellectual character and of his abiding belief in the possibility of social reform through art. As Peter Jelavich has pointed out, the intellectuals' espousal at this time of the cabaret medium as an appropriate, indeed preferred, form and forum for the expression of ideas was to have significant ramifications for twentieth- century culture.

    The appearance of the political cabaret in Germany was the direct result of the Lex Heinze, a repressive censorship bill that had been introduced in the Prussian legislature in The furious debate it engen- dered precipitated the founding of Ernst von Wolzogen's Uberbrettl cabaret and Max Reinhardt's Schall nnd Ranch in Berlin and the Elf Scharfrichter in Munich, all within weeks of each other.

    At the turn of the century, the writer Julius Otto Bierbaum had already identified the cabaret with the Arts and Crafts Movement, calling for an "angewandte Lyrik," an "applied lyric. A decade later her features were to be memorialized in The Green Dress, cat. Hiisgen fashioned masks for all of the Elf Scharfrichter, including one for Wedekind which was shown in the second Phalanx exhibition the following winter cat. At about the same time, Phalanx president Niczky designed a poster to ad- vertise the Lyrisches Theater cat. Stern's contribution to the Elf Scharfrichter must have been of acute in- terest to Kandinsky.

    According to Stern's own memoir, he was hired by the cabaret to do what he called "rhythmical drawing. Not only that, but my lines moved in time with the music: As soon as one sketch was completed the sheet was torn away and another one was ready beneath it for the next attempt. He would eventually devote a whole chapter to "color-language" in his treatise Uber das Geistige in der Knnst Concerning the Spiritual in Art , discussing at length the relationships between colors and musical instruments, rhythms and tones.

    He subsequently noted in "Riick- blicke" how music had always called forth colorful visual imagery in his 4i Translated in Lindsay and Vergo. It is important to remember that, although Kandinsky's Munich experience is em- phasized here, he always maintained close ties with Russia, through visits, exhibitions and publications. Later in Russia he would develop an experimental workshop devoted to the study of synaesthesia and the psychology of perception.

    During those same months in which he took part in the establishment of the Phalanx, Kandinsky had been at work on his first art review for publica- tion. This review appeared in the Russian periodical Novosti dnia on April 17, His activity at this time was manifestly representative of a behav- ior pattern that was always to distinguish his career: Over the next three and a half years a dozen exhibitions under the aegis of the Phalanx took place, and soon after the group was formed, a school of the same name was founded here Kandinsky taught painting and Hecker and Hiisgen taught sculpture.

    A review of the participants in these exhibi- tions reveals not only the avant-garde attitude of the leader of the Phalanx, but also the two artistic strains which were in conflict in his mind and work during this period: Kandinsky would search for a rapprochement between these two tendencies for the next several years. Both directions were represented in exhibitions of the Phalanx but, more often than not, the lyric Symbolist or Jugendstil works outnumbered the others. This preponderance was mirrored in Kandinsky's own work, as he exhibited more and more of his decorative designs and woodcuts, becoming ever more preoccupied with this form.

    If integration of everyday life and dramatic expression in the form of the cabaret was the major subject of the first Phalanx exhibition, the idea of transforming life itself into the ideal Gesamtkttnstiverk was the theme of the second. This extraordinarily large exhibition it included works was almost entirely devoted to the Jugendstil Arts and Crafts Movement, with ad- ditional works by one of Germany's leading Symbolist painters, Ludwig von Hoffman. On the occasion of this exhibition, Kandinsky, now president of Phalanx, associated himself once again with an avant-garde event.

    This was the opening, in the summer of , of the Darmstadt Kihistlerkolonie Art- ists' Colony , the most important Jugendstil exhibition of its time. Within months of the opening, Kandinsky had invited its major artists to exhibit examples of their applied arts with Phalanx. Furthermore, he included crafts by members of the Vereinigten Werkstatten fiir Kitnst im Handwerk and by a number of independent craftsmen, such as Emmy von Egidy, an Obrist student cat. Kandinsky himself exhibited four decorative de- signs, including Twilight, cat.

    The direct relationship between the possibilities of abstraction in paint- ing and the exploitation of abstract ornament in Jugendstil was especially evident in the work of two of the most productive and significant artists of the Kihistlerkolonie, Peter Behrens and Hans Christiansen. Behrens, a found- ing member of the Munich Secession, had by given up painting to de- vote himself entirely to architecture and the applied arts. His woodcuts of the s, such as The Kiss cat. But in the monumental banners Behrens devised for the home he designed for himself at the Kiinstlerkolonie cat.

    In the case of Christiansen, an ambiguity of artistic intention persisted in his lifelong loyalty to both applied arts and painting; this ambiguity is per- haps most poignantly conveyed in his beautiful designs for stained-glass windows fig. In fact, the saturated color and opportunities for formal abstraction offered by the stained-glass medium were irresistible to many artists of Christiansen's generation. To what degree the example of stained glass influenced Kandinsky's development perhaps cannot be accurately as- sessed at present, but even at that time critics compared the color effects of his woodcuts to those of stained glass.

    The implications of stained glass for the development of abstract art in general require further study, but are clearly evident, for example, in the work of Adolf Holzel, who eventually devoted himself entirely to that medium in his search for what he called an "absolute" painting. In the second Phalanx exhibition, Christiansen showed ten tapestries, thirteen ceramic vases, three large carpets, six embroidered cushions and a number of table linens and curtains cat.

    The vases, especially the so-called Prunkvase, or presentation vase, perhaps affected Kandinsky most immediately. Its design of circles and wavy lines evidently made an indelible impression on Kandinsky, whose sketchbooks of this pe- riod contain drawings of the same motif and even a vase of the same shape cat. Eventually circles and wavy lines were to become sym- 43 fig- 16 Vasily Kandinsky Several Circles.

    Guggenheim Museum, New York bols imbued with poetic significance in Kandinsky's work of the Bauhaus period. Several Circles, fig. Clearly, at this point in his career Kandinsky was enormously interested in the potential of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His notebooks are full of designs for applique, jewelry, ceramics and furniture cat. In addition to the four drawings he showed at the Phalanx and specifi- cally designated as "decorative sketches" in the catalogue, he exhibited his painting Bright Air, , which, in its studied formal relationships and styli- zation, may be characterized as a thoroughly Jugendstil work.

    Kandinsky also produced designs for embroidery and for clothing at this time cat. The dresses he designed for Miinter cat. Designs for locks and keys appear in the notebooks as well cat. They may be compared with similar designs by Endell for the Hofatelier Elvira fig. By Kandinsky's letters to Miinter often allude to his enthusiastic involvement with decorative design. In February of that year he wrote: And [I've made] a similar drawing and then painted it in oil decoratively. The flyer advertising the Phalanx school gives its address as Hohenzollernstr. Documentation on Obrist gives the address of the Obrist- Debschitz school as Hohenzollernstr.

    At present writing it is unclear whether the two occupied the same building, as Bathe suggests. An inter- esting pendent to this is a letter from Obrist which is partially reproduced in Sylvie Lampe-von Bennigsen, Hermann Obrist Erinnerungen, Munich, Verlag Herbert Post Presse, , giving Obrist's address as Finkenstrasse 3b; the first exhibition rooms of the Phalanx society were also in Finken- strasse. Will it last long? As the summer of progressed, his tempo of work increased and he made woodcuts for the new publishing firm established by Reinhard Piper and for exhibitions in Germany, France and Russia.

    In August he wrote to Munter an impassioned defense of his preoccupation with the craft of the woodcut see p. The woodcut provided an outlet for his inner need to cut through to the essence of things, and satisfied the yearning to reduce forms to abstractions while at the same time conveying symbolic meaning. Undoubtedly, it was in the propensity of Jugendstil craft design for ab- straction that Kandinsky found its greatest attraction. His close contact at this time with Obrist, the leader of the Munich Jugendstil movement, has al- ready been noted.

    Indeed, in his letters to Munter between and Kandinsky often mentioned his discussions with this man whom many called a seer. Clearly Obrist was then feeling his way towards a new art form. Fur- thermore, the work of Obrist's students also displayed an astonishingly pro- phetic tendency to abstraction.

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    Paintings by his pupils Hans Schmithals and B. Tolken reproduced in the March issue of Dekorative Kunst are particularly remarkable. Schmithals executed a series of paintings during this period cat. In fact, Kandinsky's Phalanx school was situated in the immediate vicin- ity of Obrist's newly founded arts and crafts school, known as the Obrist- Debschitz School.

    Munter, one of Kandinsky's students and soon to become his closest friend and companion, lived in the building occupied by Obrist's school, and Obrist attended meetings of the Phalanx society. Doubtless it was Obrist who arranged for the generous representation of Munich's Ve- reinigten Werkstatten in the second Phalanx exhibition. Klaus Lankheit, Franz Marc: DuMont Schauberg, ; Orpheus with the Animals, no.

    See also Lankheit, ed. The eighth exhibition included a portfolio of prints by Impressionist, Neo-Impres- sionist and Symbolist artists, ibid. Neo-Impressionist works were also included in the tenth exhibition, but records of the exact titles or media have not yet come to light. Many of Kandinsky's later associates of the Blaue Reiter years also de- voted their energies to applied-arts designs at various times in their careers. August Macke designed for a variety of media, eventually producing interior decorations, among them murals and furniture for the Worringer Tee-Salon in Cologne cat.

    Some of his exquisite craft designs cat. That Franz Marc shared the widespread hope for social regeneration through the applied-arts movement is documented in his work and also in his correspondence and other writings. Among his craft designs is a pamphlet of patterns for a home weaving-loom cat. Both his original design for a tapestry of Orpheus with the Animals and the tapestry itself have been lost, but a cartoon which was probably carried out by another hand is ex- tant cat.

    Marc also designed ex libris, posters cat. In the summers of and he took his Phalanx students into the coun- tryside where they could paint from nature in a setting remote from the dis- tractions of the city. We see him seated stiffly on the grass in a portrait painted by Miinter at Kallmiinz in the summer of cat. And Kandinsky painted Miinter the same summer standing before her easel in the shade of the trees cat.

    Like this portrait, most of his plein-air oil studies remained small in format, and we know that Kandinsky spent a good deal of time in Kallmiinz experimenting with woodcuts, decorative designs and pottery. The most successful of Kandinsky's early out- door studies, the small Beach Baskets in Holland cat.

    Here dabs of color were applied in a free pointillist manner, leaving large areas of un- touched canvas. But this was an isolated experiment. The dabs of colors closed up again to create the jewel-like mosaic surface, quite different from Impressionist pointillism, of such other-directed paintings as Sunday, Old Russian, , and Riding Couple, cat.

    The work of established Impressionist artists was presented in only two documented Phalanx exhibitions. These were the third Phalanx exhibition in the early summer of , which featured Lovis Corinth and Wilhelm Triibner, and the seventh, held almost exactly a year later, which brought a group of sixteen paintings by Claude Monet to Munich. Corinth had studied in Paris, where he was directly exposed to French Impressionism, while Triibner was inspired by the Courbet-influenced style of the Munich artist Wilhelm Leibl, with whom he was associated for a while. Both had been founding members of the Munich Secession, but by the time their work was shown at Phalanx, Corinth was in Berlin where he had be- 46 fig.

    In her article "Kandinsky et la Finlande I. Sarajas-Korte points out that the Finnish painter Axel Haart- man had studied with Kandinsky in Munich in , and that Kandinsky's work was first exhibited in Finland by the Society of Art of Finland in spring At the time of writing she was not aware of Kandinsky's connection with Gallen-Kallela. Interestingly, the Monet exhibition included not a single haystack painting.

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    But it was advertised with a poster designed by Kandinsky, in typi- cal Jugendstil manner, with a Viking ship on a sinuously meandering river cat. It seems to have consisted of a Monet collection then touring Europe, since works shown at both Cassirer's gallery in Berlin and at the Viennese Secession earlier that year were included.

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    Kandinsky would have seen these paintings during a trip to Vienna in April, since he wrote to Miinter that he had visited the Secession. The most immediate effect of both exhibitions was more political than aesthetic, for they established Kandinsky and Phalanx as entities with which to reckon. The Corinth-Trubner show elicited a respectful review in Knnst ftir Alle, which, however, ignored the Monet exhibition.

    Nonetheless, Kan- dinsky's associate Gustav Freytag recalled that the most memorable event connected with the Monet exhibition was the visit of the Prince Regent Luit- pold himself, and that Kandinsky escorted him personally through the show. But, memorable or not, no record of Kandinsky's own reaction to this event appears to have survived. These two exhibitions seem to have been dutiful homages, on the one hand, to established secessionist taste, and, on the other, to Kandinsky's memory of that crucial confrontation with a Monet haystack in Moscow.

    His correspondence with Miinter during the period of the Monet exhibition indicates that he was in a depressed frame of mind; the dream engendered by that earlier encounter still eluded him and, although he made no direct reference to it, the exhibition must have been a poignant reminder. Akseli Gallen-Kallela was the star of the fourth Phalanx exhibition in , where he was represented by thirty-six works. A close friend of the composer Sibelius fig. Hitherto unpublished, they are exhibited here for the first time cat.

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    Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully. A activation email has been sent to you. Please click the link in that email to activate your subscription. In poetischen Szenen von grosser suggestiver Kraft schildert der Autor in seinem Debutroman die fremde Welt Afrikas, die er von vielen Reisen kennt und dem Leser auf literaisch uberzeugender Weise nahe zu bringen wei General Imprint:.