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Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. XXV marzo de ; XXVII julio de ; ; 13 de agosto XXXII junio de 15; XXXII 13 de mayo de XXIV 28 de enero de ; 28 de febrero XXV 28 de marzo XXVII 28 de agosto de XXV 28 de marzo de ; 28 de abril XXVI 13 de junio XXIX 28 de noviembre XXXIV 28 de septiembre XXIV 28 de febrero de XXV abril de ; XXVII 13 de julio ; 13 de agosto XXVI 13 de junio de XXVI 28 de mayo de XXXII mayo de ; XXIX 13 de noviembre de ; 13 de diciembre XXXIV 13 de octubre XXIX 35 de noviembre de XXIX 13 de diciembre de XXXV 13 de noviembre XXV 13 de marzo de ; 28 de abril XXIX 28 de noviembre de 73; 28 de diciembre XXVII 13 de junio de XXXI marzo de ; XXV 13 de mayo de XXIV 13 de enero de ; 35 de febrero XXV 13 de marzo XXXIV septiembre ; ; 28 de octubre XXXI 28 marzo de ; 28 de abril XXXII 13 de junio XXXIV septiembre ; ; 13 de octubre Navarro y Rodrigo, C.

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XXXI abril de ; XXV 18 de mayo de XXX febrero de ; Anales galdosianos 4 Anales galdosianos 17 The Spanish Press Print, Power and Politics. University of Illinois Press, Anales galdosianos 19 Throughout his lifetime Miguel de Unamuno was fascinated by doubling, self-duplication, and fraternal rivalry: His notion that every man harbored within himself both Cain and Abel, or the active and the contemplative personalities, may be traced to the essays of En torno al casticismo , in which a dual concept of history and national character was first introduced.

Don Miguel frequently chose civil war as a metaphor to represent fraternal conflict, and in his first novel, Paz en la guerra , he described the second Carlist War as a battle for economic supremacy between urban cainitas and rural abelitas , while the novel's two protagonists, Pachico Zabalbide and Ignacio Iturriondo, represented two highly different facets of the author's youthful personality. In these works fraternal enmity metaphorizes the conflict between the conscious ego and the unconscious contents of a rival shadow personality The battle between the light and dark sides of the human psyche, or as Unamuno was to call it, the problema de la personalidad , was of great personal interest to don Miguel, and it acquired an especially prominent place in the fiction he produced after the publication of Niebla This growing preoccupation with twins and personality splitting perhaps had its basis in the author's own inability to resolve his now famous internal dichotomies.

Certainly the many works of literature in which Unamuno elects to study the effects of psychological dualism on the personality seems to reveal the author's attempt to fathom the dual tendencies of his own psyche. That archetypal motifs appear frequently in the work of Unamuno should be of no surprise since as a Hellenist don Miguel had greater access than most to a wealth of mythological heritage still extant today in the Western canon.

This essay intends to examine three sources frequented by don Miguel: Otto Rank suggests that the idea of self-duplication was created as a defense mechanism against the threat of death, but the twin, or double, also appears in folklore as a reminder of death's imminence Twins have been regarded as anthropomorphic representations of personality cleavage, and as such have been the subject of superstition in the taboos of primitive cultures.

The assumption that one twin was of divine origin while the other was of mortal descent is most likely modeled on the dual paternity of the Dioscuric gods, Castor and Pollux Mauron This pattern is established in Paz en la guerra with the death of Ignacio Iturriondo, the first of many contemplative yo ex-futuros created, and annihilated, by don Miguel. Only the elimination of one of the antagonists involved brings a temporary, if misleading solution to the problem; misleading since the pursued often perishes within a short while of his pursuer.

The conclusion Unamuno appears to draw from his fictional examination of doubling, is that the psyche functions completely only in the presence of a complement upon which it depends to provide its sought-for wholeness.

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While in literature competition between the ego and its rival shadow has had a long association with the metaphor of the hostile double, in psychology the same motif expresses the archetype of self-division Neumann 95; Rank The double, or imagined pursuer, is habitually portrayed as the protagonist's brother who personifies that part of the ego which becomes detached, and assumes an independence threatening to the protagonist Rank Rank concludes that the double motif occurs most often in the work of those authors who themselves experienced male sibling rivalry Especially noteworthy is Unamuno's use of these pairs in his work as metaphorical expressions of psychological dualism.

In order to appreciate the palimpsest of mythological tradition upon which this novel rests, it is necessary to go beyond the familiar Cain and Abel story which appears as its first, and most recognizable layer. Cosmas and Damian, the names Unamuno gave to the rival twins of his play El otro , are thought to be the Christian equivalents of the pagan, Dioscuric gods, Castor and Pollux. Married to Menelaus, she allowed her self to be carried off by Paris, son of the King of Troy. This mythological abduction was instrumental in causing, if not the oldest extant archetype of fraternal warfare, then certainly its most notorious and legendary exponent.

Puzzled, as in the Biblical episode no woman plays a significant role, Abel queries: The Greek Helen displays a personality remarkably similar to Unamuno's beautiful and vain Helena who, like her predecessor, is as unaware as she is unconcerned by the passions she stirs in men In point of fact, both the Homeric and Unamunian heroines seem to share a passive acceptance of their destinies as professional femmes fatales. Milton, whose epic poem plays an important role in Unamuno's novel, established this antagonistic, yet clearly dependent relationship in Satan's challenge to Christ: The same relationship between Christ and the Antichrist was also perceived by C.

Jung for whom the pair symbolized a polarity of psychic characteristics in need of reconciliation 9, ii: It becomes evident, then, that Unamuno, in his reworking of the Cain and Abel legend, reproduces one of the most ancient images contained in the collective unconscious of mankind.

Don Miguel's Cain is a demonic and rebellious individual, while Abel, the Biblical tender of sheep, personifies innocence and the contemplative personality traits customarily associated with the Lamb of God Rof Carballo, following Melanie Klein, suggests that the most envied of people are those who possess the gift of creativity.

He proposes that Lucifer's crime was not that of pride as is commonly believed, but the envy of God's creative capabilities 4. The representation of Cain as Satan's ally reached its apogee in Romantic literary iconography which often portrayed both figures as unjustly doomed and excessively maligned creatures The Romantics are also credited with anticipating certain theories of depth psychology, particularly those of C.

Jung whose concept of the integration of opposites forms the cornerstone of the individuation process Russell According to Jung, the successfully individuated self is a coincidentia oppositorum , or synthesis of fight and dark qualities 5: The process of individuation itself consists in the recognition of the shadow personality, the identification of its contents, and, in the case of men, its reconciliation to consciousness through the mediating role of the female anima Hannah True evil lodged in the opposition of psychic principles; true good in their reconciliation Russell As did the Romantics and Jung, Unamuno likewise articulated the light and dark aspects of the soul through the symbolic indivisibility of Christ and Satan.

Because of his transgression, Lucifer, once the fabled morning star, is banished from Heaven to the shadows of Hell. These were the years in which both Unamuno and Jung reached adulthood, and given their essentially romantic, somewhat mystical natures, it is hardly surprising that they would have shared an interest in the double, one of the most popular motifs in Romantic literature Although he denied the influence of Byron's Cain: Similar to the Romantic and Jungian views of the human personality as a coincidence of opposites, Stevenson's short novel has been interpreted as the story of a divided psyche battling for integration Hannah As does Stevenson, Unamuno intuits that split personality occurs when an ego rejects its unconscious shadow by denying it access to participation in the adult self.

Under these circumstances the shadow splinters away from the personality and assumes the rival existence of an autonomous psychic entity Jung 9, is In these rare cases the positive characteristics of the ego are repressed causing it to assume negative character traits Jung 9, ii: Although it is normal to discharge psychic incompatibilities by projecting them onto others, it is likewise possible to reject the positive values one feels are alien or inaccessible to the self Jung 6: Considerable moral effort is required to face the self-scrutiny necessary to initiate a process of psychic integration.

Although Monegro is capable of recognizing and identifying the characteristics of his demonio de la guarda , as Unamuno terms the shadow personality 2: Monegro therefore goes through life an unwell man, unwell be cause of his insistence on separation rather than relatedness, and his fear and hatred of himself. The act is, of course, futile since the slaying of one's double is an illusory separation of the ego from the self. Monegro's end becomes imminent when a crucial part of his psyche is definitively severed, and with it, the reason for his existence.

The death of this shattered man is permeated by the same sense of finality that overwhelms the tragic lives of all the characters in Unamuno's repertoire who fail to complete a process of individuation. As conceived by Jung, the harmony of individuation can only be attained through compromise. It consists of a metaphorical smoothing of the rough edges of ego and shadow so that each can adjust more successfully to the other's dimensions.

While the archetype of individuation surfaces repeatedly in Unamuno's prose fiction, the metaphysical compromise it implies seems to have made it impossible for him to entertain the viability of psychic totality on the practical level. This notion first appears in Dr. It is conceivable that Unamuno's unflagging exploration of the split personality reveals an intent to analyze his dual nature through the therapy of literary creation.

Nevertheless, Unamuno appears to find an equivalent of Jung's spiritual coincidentia oppositorum in the chiasmus, a rhetorical trope which he transposes from its normally stylistic context to one allowing for the structuring of a novel based on the principle of binomial conceptualization. Adopting the chiasmus to convey the inner dualism of his protagonists seems to be the only response possible on Unamuno's part to the integration of psychological polarities. I suggest that only through the chiasmus, that is through the intellect, is Unamuno able to approach the archetype of individuation which he normally found inadmissible on the existential and ontological levels.

Thus his stories of male, and not infrequently female doubling, are but pretexts for a quest to reconcile what don Miguel perceived as his own conflictive public and private, or passive and aggressive personalities. This chiastic juxtaposition is rendered by the following diagram:.

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Another chiasmus is constructed around the tide of the novel. Thus they remain, like Unamuno's own personality, an ego forever at variance with its shadow. Unamuno and English Literature. El otro y don Juan. The Way of Individuation. William McGuire et al. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Sir Herbert Read et al.

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Pantheon for Bollingen Foundation, Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self. Cruz del Sur, The Analysis of Hispanic Texts. The Origins and History of Consciousness. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Richard Aldington and Delano Ames. The Double; A Psychoanalytic Study. U of North Carolina P, The Devil in the Modern World. Vida de don Miguel. Jung's Treatment of Christianity. Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de. U of Toronto P, Unamuno en su nivola. Both the intimate and the total novel pursue an elusive sense of personal and national identity; however, while the latter demonstrates an intense historical consciousness, the intimist approach examines Mexico through the microcosm of multiple but specific interpersonal relationships.

Galindo writes about personal limitations and individual isolation, in combination with innovative focalization techniques, to permit an elucidating examination of human behavior. His repeated juxtaposition of third and first person perspectives and voices within a single paragraph effectively dramatizes the manner in which characters react to their environment and interlocutors. The reader is continually reminded of the multiple intellectual and emotional components that shape language and relationships.

In addition, a penetrating and persistent extradiegetic narrating voice seems to become itself a character in the narrative, such is its role in uniting the multiple perspectives. La justicia de enero is Galindo's second novel. Set in Mexico City, the urban location reflects the impersonal and somewhat cosmopolitan dimension of the characters' employment in the national immigration service. Nevertheless, the details of how these persons represent and reinforce the status quo , their fluctuating values and materialistic concerns, are representative of provincial as well as urban contexts.

The fact that Galindo will situate all but one of his novels in the provinces attests to his view that the general existential malaise extends beyond the metropolis. As the title suggests, the novel is concerned with the justice system, both specifically Mexico City and conceptually the defining of truth. Alongside their professional interactions, glimpses into their marital relationships provide additional information about the financial and emotional constraints they confront.

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Pedro and his wife Mercedes manage to find mutual happiness. Victor reacts to a childhood tragedy-his father's abuse of his mother led to her killing him, then to her subsequent imprisonment and suicide; he cannot accept the arbitrary definitions of justice with which society judged his mother, and later used against the Italian prisoner Ena, whom he loved. Gregorio Ferat and Alberto del Campo are opportunists who do reasonably well within the profession, through corruption and the manipulation of fellow employees.

The month of January -the first and most volatile- suggests the relative nature of human values and judgments, all inextricably bound up in the complicated workings of human perception and experience. Although substantial narrative time is de voted to the stories of each of the five couples, the dynamics in their relationships and their responses to their individual realities form the total presentation of one reality; the signified of the whole work is the mosaic of its various components.

As a young man he was fiercely honest, obeying his own concepts of justice. When he marries Cecilia they five with her mother Marcela. Cecilia had been raised out side of the Catholic Church, but well within the consensus values of domesticity, and the concommitant illusion of control over one's own environment.

Cecilia resists facing this possibility, but finally realizes that she cannot accept his seemingly dichotomous values. After fleeing Mexico City for Tijuana, Cecilia becomes a cabaret prostitute. Because today's reader is more liable to look at the social con text that produces her behavior than to be affected by the marginal nature of her choices, and also because modern sensibilities are less liable to redeem Cecilia than to propose alternative channels for her rebellion, I have chosen to present her as the protagonist of the novel.

Cecilia's quest into unknown and marginal social spheres yields no real solution for dealing with the values she has rejected. Through Bernardo, owner of the cabaret in which she works, Cecilia finds a possible return to respectability. Bernardo, too, envisions their mutual redemption through his marriage to Cecilia, and a reformed life in a new location. But society demands retribution from Bernardo: She has defied bourgeois society and been denied access to conventional modes of redemption.

The analysis is based on Floyd Merrell's model of narrative structure which Brushwood has developed into two paradigms that offer an examination of the basic antimonies underlying the action in a text, their development through the binary oppositions presented in the narrative, and their possible resolution through a mediating agent.

The analysis includes three levels of study: The following diagram shows the relationship of the metaphoric synchronic to the metonymic diachronic levels in La justicia de enero:. On the axiological level, community vs. Self-worth is associated with an individual's success or failure in being part of these systems; punishments -either self-inflicted or as a consequence of chosen actions- insure the perpetuation of the values these structures represent. The axiological level in this case establishes an ironic situation, the irreconcilable opposition of institutional and individual value systems; it suggests that social systems, in order to survive, cannot implement the values they embody.

The axiological oppositions necessarily produce tension and anguish, which in terms of action appear in the diagram as redemption vs. With regard to the community, solid line A promises redemption through consensus ideals and punishment for those who fail to comply; here, Cecilia is well within prescribed social boundaries as a loyal and obedient daughter. A slight deviation from the norm occurs in that Cecilia was raised out side of the Church; the idea of some degree of self-determination has been part of her socialization: Solid line B indicates that Society allows penitent rebels to rejoin the status quo through the appropriate channels, in the case of Cecilia by marriage to Bernardo.

The broken lines show the contrasting values of the two symbolic-semantic terms that have quite different meanings depending on whether they are used with respect to the community or to the individual. Broken line A shows Cecilia having become a prostitute, rejecting her roles as daughter, wife and female, subsequently being brought back into society by a person who himself is an outsider.

They are to be married, this time by the Church, after three months of reformed living. Significantly, Bernardo believes that only through Cecilia can he redeem himself: Aquella nueva vida -el hacer planes y pensar en los detalles del matrimonio y del futuro hogar Cecilia's redemption is to be effected by a pimp; the restoration of the social order, the redemption of the renegade and defiled female, and the perpetuation of community values is in the hands of the anti-hero.

Ironically they will reinforce the status quo that is responsible for their marginalization. Another dimension of broken line A is that of the role of transgression in society. Georges Bataille observes that the orgy -which in this situation is represented by Cecilia's several transgressions through sexual encounters and her addiction to alcohol- offers two important changes: However, solid line A shows the impossibility of their redemption, as both Cecilia and Bernardo are sacrificed by an unforgiving social order.

Solid line B, then, offers an illusion, or perhaps a deception. Cecilia's radical, and yet stereotypical, reaction places her in society's firing line, at the same time the concomitant self-degradation it produces causes her to seek a return to well-defined limits. Further, the fact that Cecilia finds no resolution to her dilemma does not invite a reconciliation between the community and the individual.

And additionally, broken line B shows prostitution as a reactive -and not proactive- response. In other words, her initial action yields to a passive posture as she becomes society's victim.

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Just as solid line B revealed a deceptive situation, broken line A shows that Marcela's daughter had envisioned a sense of control she could not possess; her career as a prostitute neither satisfied her desire for retribution nor permitted her redemption. Apparently transgressions can result in redemption, and a reinforcement of the status quo , but they do not always do so.

The novel is divided into two parts. Leerlos antes del bautizo. El ambiente y el futuro se inundaban de ecos que solucionaban sus dudas, que garantizaban la tranquilidad y auguraban lo eterno, negando la soledad y el desamparo. Cecilia's interpretation of reality changes: Cecilia's quest ends with a belated discovery: She had been unprotected, the victim of her own mother's vision no mention is made in the novel of her father. Solid line A reveals the direct and ironic relationship between the obedient correctly-socialized female figure, and the same figure as the victim of her own socialization.

The individual male intermediary himself knowledgeable as the result of a journey into the marginal social spheres serves to define the community role. Other underlying tensions that provide the synchronic and metaphoric interaction of the novel are: The initial item in the first two pairs refers to mechanisms that maintain the third pair's conservative power.

The second items provide victims for the status quo and inhibit progress or reform, the completing element in the third opposition. Because of her pride, Cecilia sacrifices, both intentionally and unintentionally. She loses faith in her husband, and then in herself: Cecilia's need to question the social order and yet still be allowed an acceptable place within it -in other words, her very flexibility- make her vulnerable.

The dynamics of guilt and innocence are finely blended in the narrative. A version of their possible reconciliation is voiced by Pedro Ruiz Castro when he decides to give up his profession, observing that the attainment of justice is outside the jurisdiction of mortals, and that therefore guilt cannot pertain to crime because justice has nothing to do with the truth. Pedro's personal solution, to abandon the pursuit of justice, does not finally work for Cecilia, although broken line A suggests that she was willing to modify her original stance.

Del Campo's self-image is ambiguous, as is his sexuality: Creer, aunque fuera en la estafa, en el cohecho. Eventually the System exacts its own retribution on those who promote it: The conflict between conservatism and progress is particularly crucial to the novel's message. It seems to include an awareness of gender as an additional category of concern with the personal limitations imposed by society. When Cecilia discovers that Bernado's partner Max has absconded with the money from the sale of the cabaret, she reflects: The novel's denouement takes a very conservative turn.

As the paradigm of metonymic associations suggests see next page , Cecilia's efforts to challenge society's established values and proscribed roles reveals not only her own failure and victimization, but also the failure of Society in providing her with options In the upper left-hand corner, the praxemic trajectory of the novel shows Cecilia's desire to challenge the community that demands a compromise of her values.

This desire leads directly and ironically to her efforts at reintegration into the same community, thereby restoring the social order and reinforcing Establishment values. The praxemic total is the failure of Society to provide options for Cecilia's needs.

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On the right hand side, the synchronic dimension of the paradigm shows that Cecilia as an individual fails. The paradigm indicates a double failure, of society's capacity and of Cecilia's options, on both the metonymic and the metaphoric levels, and it assigns ironic significance to any mediating dimension. Perhaps the only possible mediator is the Outsider, who momentarily challenges the Establishment even while recognizing the inflexibility and inevitable dominance of the community's ethics. Galindo's criticism of society assumes more dramatic proportions when we realize that the two dimensions suggest the failure of social institutions responding to individual values.